The most important thing to remember when learning about training adaptations is that different methods of training produces different adaptations, especially for anaerobic training. Everything is specific to the training program.
Acute v. Chronic
Acute adaptations occur immediately, after one session of training. Chronic adaptations occur over a longer period of time, whether it be weeks or months of training.
Anaerobic v. Aerobic
Anaerobic training is generalized as strength and conditioning, while aerobic training is summed up by cardio exercise. But the two are best defined and compared by looking at their metabolic demands.